The comparison is a good one, seeing the positions where they started from and certain striking parallels in their historical pathways, including American-backed anti-Communist military-backed dictatorships, participation in & benefit from the Vietnam War, crony capitalism mega-corporations and sudden transitions to Asian-style democracies. You are right that the vast ideological and practical-behavior difference between Catholicism and Neo-Confucianism can explain one big part of the difference of what happened. Also, however, there is just the historical accident of the difference in personal character between the dictators they had -- Philippines having bad luck with such a total jerkoff as Marcos & family who simply looted the country and left it deep in debt with little real development to show for it (fairly standard for dictatorships around the globe). While Korea had some amazing and rare GOOD luck in the dictator who seized power just a relatively short time before Marcos -- indeed grabbed hold of all the nation's money and resources, but then invested them all in national infrastructure development while putting relatively very little in the pockets of family or cronies (virtually none into his own pockets -- he died broke!). A rare case of a badass bloody-handed military dictatorship that actually benefited its nation in the long run.